Land Fertility Africa has eight major physical regions: the Sahara, the Sahel, the Ethiopian Highlands, the savanna, … The Sahara is very hot in summer, with temperatures that can reach more than 50˚C. The Mediterranean Sea is to the north, and to the south are Mauritania, Mali, and Niger. Algeria is bordered by seven countries. Please contact us in case of omissions concerning copyright-protected work. Attempts to bring steppe areas under cultivation have resulted in the depletion of the soils, and ecosystems are being changed by desertification. The southern borders, drawn in the Sahara desert, are not easily guarded, providing opportunities for smuggling and illegal migration. Can be used for coloring. This has resulted particularly in an increase in the production of gold. Exploration of Saharan areas further south revealed other important hydrocarbon reserves in the regions of In Salah and In Amenas. Currently, 72.6 % of the population of Algeria is urban (31,236,431 people in 2019) Population Density The 2019 population density in Algeria is 18 people per Km 2 (47 people per mi 2 ), calculated on a total land area of 2,381,740 Km2 (919,595 sq. An important future resource is solar energy generated in the desert regions. by themeparktour | Posted on March 3, 2019 April 11, 2020. Most of the cities in Algeria are near the coast. Stay up to date with the weekly newsletter! Algerian wine can be found in some major restaurants in the big cities and is also being exported in limited quantities. Algeria’s main natural resources are its hydrocarbons – oil and, above all, natural gas, of which the country is a major producer in the global market. The Senate or Council of the Nation (Conseil Nationale, 144 seats) comprises representatives from the country’s provinces (wilayat, sing. Geography of Algeria. Algeria has a bicameral Parliament. As the Prime Meridian passes through the country, it has territory in both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. It shares borders with Morocco (1,559 kilometres), Tunisia (965), Libya (982), Niger (956), Mali (1,376), Mauretania (463) and the Moroccan-occupied Western Sahara (42 kilometres). The Mediterranean Sea lies to the north. Algeria is involved in the international DESERTEC programme, which aims to make solar energy from North Africa available to European electricity grids. The surface of the desert has several remarkable features. A View of Chamomile flowers inside olive groves in the endagered rural province of Redjas.jpg 2,048 × … In the west, the string of oasis towns in the Touat region have been important staging posts for the trans-Saharan trade for hundreds of years. Currently Algeria is the twelfth largest exporter of petroleum in the world. As the home of most Algerians up to the present, the coastal plains include the big cities and the major industrial centres that were created by independent Algeria. In the Sahara, other solutions have to be found that are not always sustainable. Algeria consists of three main geographical zones, each with its own climate. Economy. Some years later, large deposits of natural gas were found near Hassi R’Mel. In earlier times, the long grass was also used in basket-making. Mali, Mauritania, and Western Sahara lie to the southwest. Find worksheets about Geography of Algeria. After independence, the devastation of the war and the government’s orientation towards the buildup of industry led to a neglect of the region’s agricultural potential. The Atlas Mountains are never far from the coastal plains, and the rocks seem, in some places, to plunge right into sea. The variety of animals shown in these pictures is a good indication of the very different climate prevailing then. Rock carvings dating back about 7,000 years have been discovered in the Tassili n’Ajjer. Throughout history, the Atlas has allowed rural communities in mountain valleys and in remote desert and plain regions to live isolated from the rest of the country. In addition, precious metals are found in the remote corners of the desert. It is bordered by Algeria and Libya and it is considered the northernmost country of Africa. These chotts are marshes (often salty) in low-lying areas. "). At 2.38 million square kilometers (919,595.3 sq. GEOGRAPHY Algeria is the largest country in Africa and located on the Mediterranean coast between Morocco and Tunisia. After it was destroyed by an earthquake in 1954, it was rebuilt after the war of independence and renamed al-Asnam but suffered the same fate in 1980, leaving thousands dead. Batna 289,504 7. Algiers ( 2,364,230) 2. In the Tassili n’Ajjer region in the far south-east, the very rare (and endangered) Saharan cypress and Sahara myrtle can be found. Algeria Bordering Countries: Lake Chott Melrhir is an endorheic (closed basin) salt lake whose size varies throughout the year, yet is the largest lake in Algeria with its maximum area about 2,600 sq. The variety of tree species planted was insufficient, which prevented the creation of a true ecosystem, and those that were planted were often were eaten by sheep and goats. With 2.2 percent of the world’s proven natural gas reserves, Algeria is less important than major producers such as Russia, Iran, and Qatar. Many bays are formed where the mountains reach the sea. Algerie is the largest country in Africa and covers an area of 2332164km2.It extands from Mediterranean coast through the Sahara to Sahelian Acacia Savanna in the extreme south.More than 90% of humain populations of 25 million live in the Mediterranean region, which covers only about 15% of the country’s are.This region comprises a fertile coastal strip and two parallel … In 1995, the country's external… The country is located in North Africa's Maghreb region. In most cases, the borders were delineated by the European colonial powers, especially France. To the north is a hilly and narrow coastal plain along the Mediterranean Sea with a few small rivers. Its Arabic name, Al Jazair (the islands), derives from the name of the capital Algiers (Al Jazair in Arabic), after the small islands formerly found in its harbor. Algeria consists of two main geographical regions: the coastal and mountain zone in the north, and the Sahara in the south. These are Tunisia, Libya, and Niger to the northeast, east, and southeast respectively. The desert contains significant groundwater reserves that permit palm trees and some other crops to grow. Algeria’s Geography and Environment Algeria is the second largest country in Africa and it spans all the way from the Mediterranean Sea to the Sahara Desert. The Atlas Mountains are home to nut and fruit trees as well. Geography and Climate. Corals and sponges are used in industrial applications. km, Tamanghasset is the largest province. Annaba 342,703 5. State Borders miles), it is the tenth largest country in the world. The 462-member Lower Chamber, or People’s National Assembly (Assemblee Populaire Nationale), is elected directly. The programme may allow all the parties involved to reduce their great dependence on the trade and use of hydrocarbons, which are pollutants and contribute to global warming. Until 1962 the economy was based largely on agriculture and complemented France’s economy. There are the underground riches of oil and natural gas that have shaped the course of Algerian history since independence. With the onset of the financial and economic crisis in Europe and, from 2011, political turmoil in North Africa, many investors have hesitated to honour their commitments. Geography and Climate In contrast, the High Plains that extend south of the Atlas get far less rain. Nature Reserves With an area of 336,839 sq. Algeria is bordered by seven countries. The Tassili n’Ajjer (‘plain of rivers’) still contains much groundwater, held in the sandstone that predominates there. On the other side of the Atlas, the High Plains (Hauts Plateaux) form a semi-arid zone. Algeria accounts for 2.4 percent of global gas production. The northern part of the country is … Four-fifths of the country lies in the Sahara desert. Being on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, the land of Algeria was part of some of the great Mediterranean empires over the course of history. On the other side of the Atlas, the High Plains (Hauts Plateaux) form a semi-arid zone. Situated in North Africa, Algeria is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in the north, Tunisia and Libya toward the east, Mauritania, Niger and Mali in the south, and Morocco in the west. Other invaders soon discovered the enormous agricultural potential of the coastal plains. Africa, the second-largest continent, is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Indian Ocean, and the Atlantic Ocean.It is divided in half almost equally by the Equator. Algerian state enterprises have formed joint ventures with these foreign firms in order to expand production and gain access to state-of-the-art technology for exploiting precious metals. Ten new provinces were added  as of December 2019 : Timimoune, Bordj Badji Mokhtar, Ouled Djellal, Beni Abbes, In Salah, In Guezzam, Touggourt, Djanet, El-Meghaier and El-Menia. Futher south, the High Plains are delimited by the Anti-(or Saharan) Atlas, which are not as high as the more northern Atlas range. As the Prime Meridian passes through the country, it has territory in both the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. This page was last updated on November 9, 2020, All maps, graphics, flags, photos and original descriptions © 2020 worldatlas.com, Countries Receiving The Least Development Assistance, The 10 Largest City Parks In The United States. In the Saharan region, many oases have also long been cultivated. The majority of Algerians are Sunni Muslims with Arab-Berber roots. Find out more on episode 3 of GEOGRAPHY NOW! In Algeria, the largest African country, there are three types of climate: the mild Mediterranean climate of the coast (zone 1 on the map), the transitional climate of the northern hills and mountains (zone 2), which is a little more continental and moderately rainy, and finally, the desert climate of the vast area occupied by the Sahara (zone 3). The People's Democratic Republic of Algeria is Africa's largest country, stretching from the Sahara desert to the Mediterranean Sea. Underground water resources made possible permanent settlement of communities in oasis towns. pop. Desert lakes? The Mediterranean coast in the north is rocky, with scattered sand beaches. Blank outline map of Algeria. Through the use of artificial lakes, the improvement of water pipelines, and the construction of desalination plants, the situation has improved recently. The Numidians were known for their army which rode horses, or cavalry. Major oil and gas fields lie in the northern Sahara. Most successful has been the designation of national parks, mainly in the south. The acquired copyright protected images used on/as featured image of this page are: STRINGER ©AFP | STRINGER ©AFP | ©Fanack | ©Fanack. Algeria consists of three main geographical zones, each with its own climate. Winters can be cold, and summers are hot. Some fifteen installations have been planned, about half of which have been completed. Algeria's wealth has always been tied to its minerals. Later they were called the Berbers. Stretching from east to west, the mountain range forms a natural barrier between the coastal plains and the interior. Geography of Algeria. The inhabitants of the oases have also been able to cultivate vegetables that need more water by drilling wells, building irrigations systems, and creating a network of low walls to keep the sands out. Algeria’s climatic regions and landscapes can be divided into four sections … In winter, the abundance of rain often causes problems in urban areas, where infrastructure has been neglected. In order to promote extraction of these resources, the government has offered mining companies from Canada, China, and Australia favourable terms for investment in the country. Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, Mali, The Niger, Western Sahara, Mauritania. Algeria’s Struggling Economy in Perspective, Wave of Labour Protests Paralyzes Algeria, Algeria’s Economy Continues to Struggle as Diversification Efforts Flounder, Algeria Looks to Solar Energy to Meet Growing Electricity Demand. It is situated on the Mediterranean coast of Africa about midway between Tangier and Tunis, opposite Majorca. Algeria is one of the few countries in the world that can say it owes no other country. WorksheetWorks.com is an online resource used every day by thousands of teachers, students and parents. Today it has strong relations with the European Union as well as the Arab world and its economy is largely based on exports. The fertile Tell is the country's heartland, containing most of its cities and population. As observed on the physical map above, Mali has a monotonous landscape with plains and plateaus dominating the country topgraphy. Conquering armies, such as those of Carthage and Rome in ancient times and the Turks much later, were attracted by the bays, because they could serve as natural harbours for their merchant and war fleets. Most of Algeria’s fertile land is found in the coastal plains, in the traditional agricultural areas such as the Mitidja Plain around the capital Algiers. In the 1970s especially, the government put much effort into creating a ‘green barrier’ of trees at the borders of the Sahara in order to slow down the desert’s northward expansion. It is Africa's second-largest country with 1,200km (750 miles) of coastline. Tunisia has a long history that dates back to ancient times. Blida 331,779 6. After that disaster it was rebuilt and renamed Chlef. The government is trying to improve the situation by building or reconstructing dams to create water reserves. Algeria, the second largest Arab/African country after Sudan, is nearly one-third the size of the continental U.S. This has obliged the country to make substantial investments in water management. Algeria is a country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It also still shares borders with two enclaves that are considered a part of Spain—Ceuta and Melilla. Each climate zone has its own plant and animal life. Because this region also includes the most cultivated, urbanized, and industrialized parts of the country, its environment is under pressure. Despite the costs involved and the technical difficulties, this programme, involving specialized foreign construction firms, is of sufficient strategic importance that the state is continuing them. An alternative though more expensive option is to produce drinking water from seawater by desalination. Millions of years ago the Sahara was part of a sea. Border issues between Algeria and Libya were more easily resolved. The most famous products are the dates from the regions of Tolga and Biskra; they are the most important export product after oil and gas. The most populated areas in the coastal plains lie on the edge of this zone. Oil reserves are about 1 percent of proven global reserves. The Atlas mountains sit to the north, and the Ahaggar Massif is southeast. The country also has a coastline on the Mediterranean Sea to the north. This programme, managed by the army, has been only partly successful. Some places are extremely prone to disaster, such as the city that was known as Orleansville in colonial times. For the Romans, the cultivation of grain in these fertile areas made Algeria the breadbasket of the empire. Featuring ALGERIA!! Prior to December, 2019: Adrar, Aïn Defla, Ain Temouchent, Algiers, Annaba, Batna, Bechar, Bejaia, Biskra, Blida, Bordj Bou Arreridj, Bouira, Boumerdes, Chlef, Constantine, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, El Tarf, Ghardaia, Guelma, Illizi, Jijel, Khenchela, Laghouat, Mascara, Medea, Mila, Mostaganem, M'Sila, Naama, Oran, Ouargla, Oum el Bouaghi, Relizane, Saida, Setif, Sidi Bel Abbes, Skikda, Souk Ahras, Tamanghasset, Tebessa, Tiaret, Tindouf, Tipaza, Tissemsilt, Tizi Ouzou, Tlemcen. The environment is under threat from many directions. In the north, the Mediterranean Sea dominates the fertile coastal plains that extend up to the Atlas Mountains. The desert city of Ghardaïa, for example, experienced large floods in October 2008. Algeria is bordered by Tunisia, Libya, Niger, Mali, Mauritania, Western Sahara, and Morocco. It is the largest country in Africa. Algiers is the most populous one and hosts the national capital of Algiers. In order to process the crude oil, the country has built a significant oil-refining and petrochemical capacity. Drinking water for the expanding desert city of Tamanrasset has to be supplied by a long pipeline from other oases to its north. Domestic consumption per capita is, however, lower than in other gas-producing countries, leaving a relatively large share for export. In the north, the Mediterranean Sea dominates the fertile coastal plains that extend up to the Atlas Mountains. Since the division of Sudan in 2011, Algeria is the largest country of Africa. Its Arabic name, Al Jazair (the islands), derives from the name of the capital Algiers (Al Jazair in Arabic), after the small islands formerly found in its harbor. The plains consist of grasslands and small bushes that traditionally provided pasturage for sheep and goats. Natural Resources Population pressure and the emphasis on industrialization have made it difficult to maintain large areas of unspoiled nature in northern Algeria, with the exception of parts of the Atlas mountains. The central area of the Mzab valley, with its main town, Ghardaïa, has historically been home to the Ibadi religious minority, constituting a successful trading community. In the 1970s especially, the government put much effort into creating a ‘green barrier’ of trees at the borders of the Sahara in order to slow down the desert’s northward expansion. The largest part (about 80 percent) of the country consists of the Sahara desert. In ancient times Algeria was known as Numidia. Algérie, officially People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, republic (2015 est. Given these limited economic possibilities, many inhabitants of the plains have moved to the cities and towns, which have grown considerably as a result of this migration. The driest parts of the Sahara can remain rainless for years, but unpredictable rains sometimes fall in torrents that can have a devastating impact. Al Djazair, Fr. Tuaregs are nomadic Berber people from the … During the French colonial era, this region became an important source of grains and fruits such as oranges and figs. miles (6,700 sq km). These natural parks also have economic value through their appeal to tourists. Geography of Algeria. The climate in the north is typically Mediterranean: summers are generally hot, and winters are moderate but can be very rainy. Solar energy Although economic development has always dominated the agenda, the state now acts more forcefully on environmental issues. Most oil products now go to the growing domestic market, making the oil industry a less important source of external revenue. This outline map shows the entire country of Algeria. Among these species are lizards and snakes and some insects, but also a few mammals, such as antelopes, jackals, desert rats, and foxes. It is located in the Northern Hemisphere. Over the last decade, large investments have been made in the development of desalination plants. Most of these rare minerals are found in the remote Sahara, often making the costs of exploration and the infrastructure needed for exploiting these resources economically prohibitive. Water is scarce, both in the desert and in the heavily populated north. Important to this success has been the involvement of the local communities, for whom the desert also brings new economic opportunities, as the parks have become main tourist destinations. The Hoggar and Tassili n’Ajjer parks are of great value in sustaining the fragile desert ecosystems. Algeria is a country located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. But even the desert is far from lifeless, as it contains many plants and animals that have adapted to the harsh environment, making efficient use of the scarce water resources. Environmental Issues. The northern cities have long suffered from shortages of drinking water during the summer. Morocco is geographically located in Northern Africa along the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. km. Attempts to bring steppe areas under cultivation have resulted in the depletion of the soils, and ecosystems are being changed by desertification. The high plateaus stretch for more than 372 miles (600 km) and consist of undulating, steppe-like plains averaging 3,608 - 4,265 ft (1,100 - 1,300 m) and dropping to 1,312 ft (400 m) as you move east. South of the higher Atlas peaks, the lower rainfall makes for far less vegetation and animal life. For these reasons, the government has been actively developing the reserves. Algeria’s economy was too dependent on oil and when oil prices fell during the 1908s oil glut, the country faced a lot of hardship which led to social unrest. The production of oil began in 1956 in the desert region of Hassi Messaoud. Rode horses, or classroom use contact us in case of omissions concerning copyright-protected.... Most cultivated, urbanized, and winters are moderate but can be cold, the. In water management mountainous regions, where infrastructure has been neglected Tangier and Tunis, opposite Majorca and mountain in! And unwelcoming at first sight, but it contains many treasures under cultivation have resulted in the north, the... And its economy is largely based on exports, urbanized, and Morocco Redjas.jpg 2,048 × economy. 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